How did the Physical Environment affect Ancient Cultures


The Nile River was a source of life for the Ancient Egyptians.  Without the river there would not have been an Ancient Egyptian Civilization.

The most important thing the Nile provided to the Ancient Egyptians was fertile land.  Most of Egypt is desert, but along the Nile River the soil is  good for growing crops.  The flooding of the Nile brought rich black soil and renewed the farmlands.The Nile River Valley is one of the first places in history that we see agriculture emerging.  In a completely dry area, the Nile river gave these early people water to farm and crops and food to eat.  With their basic needs met, the population along the river increased, which allowed for specialization of labour and the growth of a complex society.

Map of Ancient EgyptInitially Ancient Egypt's geography kept them safe from attack.
At first the geography (deserts, mountains and seas) kept the Ancient Egyptians safe from invaders. To learn move visit the site below:


Tools for Farming

The The Ancient Egyptians developed many tools for farming.  You can read up on the many tools they used by clicking on the link below:

Farming Tools in Ancient Egypt (


Irrigation was made possible by the Nile and allowed for people to farm from further away from the Nile. It provided water for livestock, people and other animals.
The shaduf was used along with a canals

Ancient Egyptian Agriculture

Irrigation Museum

First Calendar

The Ancient Egyptians whole calendar was based on what the Nile was doing.
Seasons Each season contains four months.
Akhet means flood or inundation. It included the months of Tekh, Menhet, Hwt-Hrw, and Ka-Hr-Ka.
Proyet means emergence. Its months were Sf-Bdt, Redh Wer, Redh Neds, and Renwet.
Shemu  means low water. The names of its months were Hnsw, Hnt-Htj, Ipt-Hmt, and Wep-Renpet.

The Ancient Egyptian Calendar


Building Materials

 sundried bricks


In ancient Egypt trees wood was very rare to find in the Egyptian region was not widely used as a building material. Mud, clay, rock and reed were the only materials that were in abundance. The ancient Egyptian first lived in reed houses 

limestone and sandstone

STONE IN ANCIENT EGYPT by James A. Harrell, Ph.D. Professor of Geology


Papyrus and Scribes in Ancient Egypt

Papyrus was one of the most important technology for 


Ancient Egypt Boats and Transportation    

Mathematics / Pyramids


ArmY and Soldiers

Ancient Egypt  Army and Soldiers

– original Egyptians were farmers – not fighters

no need for an organized army because the surrounding deserts protected them from outside invaders

 At first the environment protected the Egyptians allowing them to evolve into a higher civilization.  

Hyksos people located near northern Egypt became organized. They conquered Lower Egypt using chariots and advanced weapons. The Egyptians knew they now needed an army


Other Sources;

Ancient Egypt Geography and the Nile River

Ancient Egypt Inventions and Technology

Ancient Egypt  Inventions and Technology

Ancient Egyptian Technology